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Mafia (Gesellschaftsspiel)Mafia ist ein Third-Person-Shooter der tschechischen Firma Illusion Softworks. Mafia erschien Der Nachfolger Mafia II wurde im August zusammen mit einem Trailer auf der Im Mai wurde mit Mafia: Definitive Edition ein Remake des Spiels für PC, Auf der Gamescom kündigte 2K Games Mafia III an. Mafia: Definitive Edition. PC, PS4, Xbox One. Lost Heaven, Ein junger Taxifahrer gerät mitten in eine Verfolgungsjagd zweier Gangster-Clans – und ehe. In this futuristic sci-fi thriller, twelve contestants enter a game of kill or be killed in Moscow. "Mafia" is a televised competition where contestants must face.
Game Mafia LOST HEAVEN, 1930 VideoBy the way, Can You Survive MAFIA?
Andrew Plotkin gave the rules a werewolf theme in ,  arguing that the mafia were not that big a cultural reference, and that the werewolf concept fit the idea of a hidden enemy who looked normal during the daytime.
Developing role-playing games 'Mafia' and 'Murderer' for a course on Visual psychodiagnostics, to teach various methods of reading body language and nonverbal signals.
In August , a user under the alias "mithrandir" of The Grey Labyrinth, a website devoted to puzzles and puzzle solving, ran a game of Mafia adapted for play on a forum board.
From there, Mafia has spread to numerous online communities. The club organizes games, rates players , and awards prizes including a Sicily trip for their tournament-series champion.
In June a Rockingham school inquiry was launched after parents complained of the traumatic effects classroom Mafia was having on their fifth-grade children.
Davidoff responded to the reports, saying that as a parent who had studied child psychology for 25 years, he felt that the game could "teach kids to distinguish right from wrong", and that the positive message of being honest could overcome the negative effects of an "evil narrator" moderating the game as if it were a scary story.
Mafia was called one of the 50 most historically and culturally significant games published since according to about.
In its simplest form, Werewolf is played by two teams: the werewolves and the villagers. Live games require a moderator who does not participate as a player, and identities are assigned by handing out cards.
At the start of the game, every werewolf is given the identities of their teammates, whereas the innocents only receive the number of werewolves in the game, and do not know which players are werewolves and which are villagers.
In an open setup, the numbers of each power role e. Thus, in an open or semi-open setup, if it is revealed that no militia are present in the game, it will not be possible for a werewolf to plausibly claim a militia role.
There are two phases: night and day. At night, certain players secretly perform special actions; during day, players discuss and vote to eliminate one player.
These phases alternate with each other until all werewolves have been eliminated or they reach numerical parity with the innocents.
Andrew Plotkin recommends having exactly two mafiosi,  whereas the original Davidoff rules suggest a third of the players rounding to the nearest whole number be mafiosi.
Davidoff's original game does not include roles with special abilities. These specifications avoid a tie votes for eliminations and ensure that the game will end dramatically on an elimination rather than anticlimactically with murder as a foregone conclusion.
All players close their eyes. The moderator then instructs all werewolves to open their eyes and acknowledge their accomplices. The werewolves pick a "victim" by silently gesturing to indicate their target and to show unanimity then close their eyes again.
A similar process occurs for other roles with nightly actions. In the case of the seer, the moderator may indicate the target's innocence or guilt by using gestures such as nodding or head shaking.
Night may be accompanied by players tapping gently to mask sounds made by gesturing. The moderator instructs players to open their eyes and announces who "died" the previous night.
Discussion ensues among the living players. At any point, a player may accuse someone of being a werewolf and prompt others to vote to eliminate them.
If over half of the players do so, the accused person is eliminated and night begins. Otherwise, the phase continues until an elimination occurs.
According to some rules, the role of dead players are revealed; according to others, it is not. Mafia is a complicated game to model, so most analyses of optimal play have assumed both a that there are only townsfolk and Mafiosi and b that the townsfolk never have a probability of identifying the Mafia that is better than chance.
Early treatment of the game concentrated on simulation ,  while more recent studies have tried to derive closed-form equilibrium solutions for perfect play.
In , the computer scientists Braverman, Etesami and Mossel proved that without detectives and with perfect players the randomized strategy is optimal for both citizens and mafia.
The Mafia's chance of victory is. If any detectives are added to the game, Braverman et al. In , Erlin Yao derived specific analytical bounds for the mafia's win probability when there are no detectives.
In a paper  from , the exact formula for the probability that the mafia wins was found. Moreover, it was shown that the parity of the initial number of players plays an important role.
In particular, when the number of mafiosi is fixed and an odd player is added to the game and ties are resolved by coin flips , the mafia-winning chance do not drop but rise by a factor of approx.
In live or videoconference  real-time play, the innocents typically win more often than game theory suggests. Several reasons for this have been advanced:.
If you're trying to feign shock or anger, it's much harder to do over a long period. People accused of something they're trying to hide will start out feigning outrage — 'How dare you ask me that?
But, the Mafia can win in live play; their best chance of winning occurs when mafioso bond with their innocent neighbours and convince those neighbours to value that bond over dispassionate analysis.
These additional roles are named differently in the many versions of Mafia, for thematic flavor , or historical reasons. Also, the same role-name can have differing functions across different versions of the game.
Players with these roles use their own night-phase to discover something about other players. Though the standard game now includes the basic Detective, these roles are optional, and games can exclude them entirely such as the stool pigeon variant, or Davidoff's original rules.
In Town of Salem , a version of Mafia, the Sheriff is a role which can interrogate people at night, and get to know their role. The Godfather and the Arsonist are immune to the detection of a Sheriff, and the Framer can frame a player to make them appear as a mafioso.
Additional variations exist, sometimes with even more specialized or complicated abilities. There are many special roles, and many moderators design novel roles for each game.
Some commercial variants ship with blank cards to allow this customization. The naming of various roles, factions, and other elements of play is theme-dependent and has limitless variation.
Common alternative themes restyle the mafia as werewolves, cultists, assassins, or witches, with other roles being renamed appropriately.
Over the years, players have created Mafia variants that include additional rules. Some of these are listed here. If there are as many mafiosi as innocents in the day-phase then a mafia victory is declared immediately, under the original Mafia rules.
Other variants suspend this rule, and only declare the game after every member of one faction has been eliminated: this makes the game easier to explain, and to run.
Nominees for elimination may be allowed to make a speech in their own defense. Discovering he was forced to do so for his family's safety, Tommy allows Frank and his family to leave the country and covers up his actions, before retrieving the evidence against Salieri.
Later, Tommy marries Sarah and starts a family with her. In , with prohibition ending, both Mafia families begin moving out into new rackets.
Upon learning that Salieri is making moves to gain control over law enforcement, Morello attempts to assassinate him.
Surviving the hit with Tommy's help, Salieri retaliates by declaring open war on his rival. To weaken Morello's position, the Salieri family target his operations, with Tommy assassinating the councillor, to reduce Morello's control on law enforcement and city politics, and Morello's brother Sergio, to reduce his control on the port unions.
The war eventually concludes when Tommy, Sam, and Paulie assassinate Morello himself after chasing him into the countryside.
By , the Salieri family takes full control of the city's rackets, neutralizing anyone who attempts to stop them.
When Tommy agrees to recover a shipment of impounded cigars, he quickly becomes disillusioned with Salieri's path upon finding that he is also smuggling diamonds.
Against Sam's advice, Tommy convinces Paulie to go ahead with a bank robbery he had been planning. Although the job is a success, Tommy finds Paulie shot dead in his apartment the following day and the stolen money missing.
Upon meeting with Sam to discuss the matter, he quickly learns that Salieri ordered him to kill both men for going behind his back, and that Michelle and Frank were killed by Salieri's men after Tommy's past cover-ups were exposed.
Surviving the attempt on his life, Tommy kills Sam, but is forced to go into hiding. With his former allies against him, he later contacts Detective Norman for help.
After relaying his story, Tommy offers to testify against the Salieri family in exchange for protection for his family. Norman agrees to the request, and the resulting investigation and mob trials lead to most of the Salieri family, including Don Salieri, being convicted and sentenced.
After serving an eight-year sentence, Tommy is reunited with his family, all of whom are placed under witness protection and relocated to Empire Bay.
Tommy lives a peaceful life with his family until , when two men approach and fatally shoot him on Salieri's behalf.
The game ends with a monologue narrated by Tommy, lamenting over how he and his friends wanted the good life but ended up with nothing at all, and concluding that it is important to keep balance in everything.
The game was in development since the end of It was codenamed Gangster and originally intended to be a driving game similar to Driver.
Multiplayer modes were also planned and announced during development, but were eventually cut in the final release.
Illusion Softworks initially utilised the engine used in Hidden and Dangerous but was replaced by LS3D as the previous engine did not fulfill the developer's requirements.
Due to the change of the engine, the game was released two years later than planned. Mafia was ported to PlayStation 2 and Xbox in Illusion was not involved in porting the game.
Some of the features of the PC version do not exist in the console port, such as police patrols around the city in Free Ride, and some aspects of the game's realism and graphics.
The original cinematic inspirations of Mafia were films like Goodfellas and The Godfather , aiming for a more serious and mature tone for the game.
Wanting to create a rich story line, director Daniel Vavra tried to mix drama, action and humour to heighten the game's realism.
The GOG release is essentially unchanged from the original game, albeit lacking the soundtrack due to licensing issues.
Mafia was well received by critics and players upon release as more realistic and serious than a usual Grand Theft Auto -styled game.
Mafia contains a much bigger city to explore than most video games of the time, with multiple forms of available transport in addition to an expansive countryside.
Dan Adams of IGN gave the game a rating of 9. While the original PC game received widespread acclaim, the versions for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox were considered inferior by many critics, and received lower scores as a result.
Mafia was elected the best video game developed in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in a survey by Czech server BonusWeb when it received votes out of 13, as every reader could choose three games to vote for.
A sequel, Mafia II , was announced on 22 August Unlike the other two, which received only improved graphics and all downloadable content packs released for the original versions, Mafia had to be rebuilt from the ground-up, with developers focusing on expanding the original's story, altering the setting to provide a new look to Lost Heaven, doing a major overhaul of the gameplay including the introduction of motorbikes , and creating a new "original score".
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After an inadvertent brush with the mafia, cabdriver Tommy Angelo is reluctantly thrust into the world of organized crime. Initially, he is uneasy about falling in with the Salieri family, but soon the rewards become too big to ignore.
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